But, that will certainly NOT be the case in close proximity to the joint particle – that is locally!

So clearly in any interactions with other entities, which are physically positioned, so as to definitely be in close proximity, these will certainly be determined by very local conditions indeed!

Let us therefore consider the following image, which superimposes the fields of the two component particles upon their mutual orbit and the surrounding area, as viewed from a position perpendicular to the plane of that orbit.

Clearly, when seen in this way, very close to the joint particle, hardly anywhere is neutral, on either electrical or magnetic criteria. The intended colours for the two fields will, ultimately, in the final version, be RED for the positive electrostatic field, and BLUE for the negative field. In both the strength of the field will be evident from the depth of colour.

We will then clearly see strong electrostatic fields in the close vicinity of each of the sub particles.

And, as these fields overlap, they will neutralise.

Now the decreasing strength of the fields are indicated by the increasing paleness of the colours involved. And where the two fields cancel out completely (particularly in the line between the particles) the zero positions are shown as black dots.

In addition, of course, such a diagram can only present a snapshot instant of a continually changing situation, for as they orbit all fields will be changing continually in all static positions, so that overall there will be NO residual field effects over time – they will average out to zero.

Now, it is extremely revealing to consider the effect upon a static single point (depicted here using the black circle near

Let us assume that the rotation is taking place in an anticlockwise direction, so that the orbiting particles approach new positions at

Clearly, over a complete cycle this point will suffer a classical complete cycle of oscillation of the field, over time, resulting in the following pattern.

We will then clearly see strong electrostatic fields in the close vicinity of each of the sub particles.

And, as these fields overlap, they will neutralise.

Now the decreasing strength of the fields are indicated by the increasing paleness of the colours involved. And where the two fields cancel out completely (particularly in the line between the particles) the zero positions are shown as black dots.

In addition, of course, such a diagram can only present a snapshot instant of a continually changing situation, for as they orbit all fields will be changing continually in all static positions, so that overall there will be NO residual field effects over time – they will average out to zero.

Now, it is extremely revealing to consider the effect upon a static single point (depicted here using the black circle near

**x)**. For, due to its shown position it will of course be subject to a strong*positive*field. But now we have to follow the changes in the field at this point, as the two sub particles move round as they orbit one another.Let us assume that the rotation is taking place in an anticlockwise direction, so that the orbiting particles approach new positions at

**z**and**w**. Clearly the positive charge upon our stationary position near**x**will decline until it reaches ZERO, where the two fields exactly cancel out. Then, as the rotation continues until the moving particles reach**y**and**x,**the effect on our position will have risen to a maximum*negative*value.Clearly, over a complete cycle this point will suffer a classical complete cycle of oscillation of the field, over time, resulting in the following pattern.

Considering our very simple diagram, we have a problem! For, both a single electron and a single positron orbiting together will again cancel their magnetic effects overall.

But, once more concentrating our attention, as with the electrostatics, on the effects during a single cycle of rotation at

**x**, it becomes clear that there will be a magnetic fields, at a maximum at the beginning, which will decline first to ZERO then rise to a maximum in the opposite direction after half a cycle. The N and S magnetic effects will also be reversed, via a midpoint where thery exactly cancel out.

It is becoming clear that the magnetic effects at

**x**will also oscillate, as did the electrostatic effects, but at right angles to the plane of the orbit.

Now, if all this is true, we can see why Maxwell’s purely formal encapsulation of electromagnetic radiation did indeed fit the bill in many circumstances. But rather than the overall effect, it would be in contrast be delivering oscillation effects at

*local*levels. (See the full electrostatic and magnetic trace below).

Now, let us consider the alternatives physically!

**Theory One**: Electromagnetic radiation is a purely disembodied-yet-energetic oscillation of

*nothing*, which which can hold and propagate energy over otherwise entirely Empty Space!

**Theory Two**: There is NO disembodied E-M radiation, but there is a joint particle with these E-M properties, which can propagate them either by movement of the receptacle particle, or by passing it on bucket-brigade fashion across a universe-wide undetectable paving of these units.

Now, of course, put like that the choice is surely “no contest”, but the failure to find any such paving, or even explain how such a vast structure could ever have come into existence always condemned such a suggestion as untenable.

Clearly, such a theory demands many as yet unrevealed things about Reality, whereas the other merely attributes all the necessary properties to Empty Space itself – that is to Nothing!

Now, though the new alternative does, in fact, work out nicely for propagation, that is certainly NOT the case with a single electron orbit within an atom. For the reversal of the magnetic component in the delivered propagation within its cycle of oscillation, seems to be impossible to generate directly via such an origin in the atom!

But, this might not be such a problem, if a prior-existing paving unit, with mutually orbiting particles of opposite charge receive merely a gobbet of energy at a given frequency. For the already existing, receiving structure would determine how than energy was internally distributed. Thereafter, both to other such units in propagation and finally given up to something else, the required full Maxwell form would be the quantum being dealt with, NOT as a wave in a medium, but as a pair of mutually orbiting particles with a receptacle-per-quantum.

So, it is merely energy at a given frequency transferred from the promoted electron orbit in the atoms to a paving propagation elsewhere.

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